Types of bitumen
Other substances from crude oil or refine it. This material has been produced from raw materials over millions of years in the basement arise. Organic matter and sludge in layers hundreds of meters thick stack together. Weight layers, the sludge and sediments and sedimentary rock are compressed together. The effect of global warming and a series of biochemical and microbial processes with the pressure of this material are converted to oil. Chemical composition of crude oil to a large extent related to the source and location of its production. Around 1500 the world's crude oil supply from the North Sea, the Middle East, South America, Asia and even Australia there. Chemical characterization of bitumen is key to the production of bitumen with their respective properties. The climatic conditions of each region needs its own pitch. Bitumen has a complex chemical composition, which can span a combination of physical properties similar and provide the same. Klydyst to characterize the chemical composition of bitumen in the bitumen produced by those refined.
The basic chemical composition of bitumen
Polar and non-polar bitumen compounds in its overall composition is made. Interactions of polar compounds and bitumen building determines its mechanical properties.
Chemical composition of bitumen produced depends on two main parameters: the source of crude oil and its production process. The final product has significant impact on crude oil supply bitumen de Eshete any chemical change in the Venus flytrap is also not included. In this series of steps may reach the pitch of the properties are excellent but there is no improvement or chemical change on it. In systems in which chemical changes take place on bitumen, a tar oil from different sources into a poor pitch is fine and good quality.
Bitumen is generally observed at two levels:
1. At the molecular level
2. At the molecular level
Molecular compounds and elements
Bitumen element analysis is an average for detailed information and a little about the molecular and physical characteristics of it. Qyrha also very small amounts of metal, mainly nickel and vanadium are.
Although generally hydrocarbon Qyrha, but most of them include at least one core and a sulfur atom, nitrogen and oxygen as well. Heteroatoms are often sufficient quantities so that average per molecule is one heteroatoms. The heteroatoms can be non-cyclic compounds that Hqlvy or groups connected to the tar compounds are present. These aromatic ring with polar properties, are creating uncertainty.
In the arrangement of atoms of different elements and molecules and chemical reactions between atoms is determined that the physical properties of bitumen.
Because heteroatoms most of polarity and chemical groups, so they have a disproportionate effect on the properties of bitumen. This includes the impact is such that the lifespan of nuclear power Vatm respond more quickly wears out pitch.
Organic source of a wide range of different molecules with which it can be divided into three categories:
1. Lynatyk (linear or chain molecules)
2. annular (ring-type materials Nftatyk)
3-aromatic (unsaturated ring materials and different atoms share electrons)
Lynatyk·ha and Hlqvyha three-dimensional and create forms that they can be studied in isolation.
Aromatics broad and flat and stacked and stand.
This type of molecule in the presence of heteroatoms and integrated into the molecular interactions and determines the properties of bitumen.
Carbon in the aromatic ring can be seen 25 to 30. Compressed carbon aromatic ring systems containing 1 to 10 rings are reacted. The ring systems may be saturated with or Nftanyk ring systems, both of which may be connected with the substituents are linear hydrocarbons. Carbon ring systems are Nftatyk the number of 15 to 30.
None of aromatic hydrocarbons or Nftatyk alone or as a side branch can not be seen and the number of carbon 35 to carbon 60 atoms. Bitumen can be seen in various other buildings.
Types of intermolecular forces or interactions between molecules include:
Pi-Pi bonds in aromatic rings
Polar or hydrogen bonding (forces and polar nuclei of atoms)
Vandrvlsy forces (intermolecular forces caused by interference from a string or chain aliphatic)
The polar and non-polar bitumen consists of only two families
Polar molecules differ in:
(A strength and number of polar groups
(B molecular weight
(C degree of aromatic
Nonpolar molecules differ in:
(I molecular weight
(Ii grade aromatics
This match two families, the extent to which they can be played on each other is measured by the degree of their respective aromatics.
This match two families, the extent to which they can be played on each other with their respective degrees measured aromatics.
Mingle and uniform handling of this material is almost impossible because of different chemical groups with major differences are large. The result has been looking to improve and changes in crude oil bitumen based on the decomposition groups that the chemical reactions are not.